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Qom Univ Med Sci J 2020, 14(4): 11-21 Back to browse issues page
Effects of Aerobic Exercise and Rosemary Extracts on Inflammatory Factors in Cerebellar of Male Old Rats
Rahman Soori1 , Hasan Vahdat1 , Fatemeh Shabkhiz1 , Shima Ababzadeh 2, Mohsen Eslami Farsani3
1- Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Faculty of Physical Education, University of Tehran
2- Cellular & Molecular Research Center, Qom University of Medical Sciences , shimaababzadeh@gmail.com
3- Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Qom University of Medical Sciences
Abstract:   (1966 Views)
Background and Objectives: Changes in the expression of pre-inflammatory cytokines play a peculiar role in the acceleration of brain aging. The consumption of some traditional herbs with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties(such as rosemary) and regular aerobic exercise are effective factors in the control of premature aging. The present study aimed to assess the effects of aerobic exercise and consumption of rosemary extract on Tumor necrosis factor-alpha  (TNF-α) and Interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels in the cerebellum tissue of old male rats.
 
Methods: A total of 40 male Wistar rats (18 months) weighing about 350–450 g were selected. They were randomly assigned to five groups: control, sham (treadmill off and distilled water gavage), practice (12 weeks, 5 days a week), supplement or extract (12 weeks of daily 100 mg/ kg gavage rosemary extract), and practice-supplement(extract). To evaluate the level of cytokines, the cerebellum tissue was quickly removed 24 h after the last practice session according to ethical principles. After homogenization, the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA technique). Data statistical analysis was carried out using one-way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc tests.
 
Results: As evidenced by the obtained results, a significant increase was observed in IL-6 level in the exercise and extract groups, compared to the sham and control groups (P< 0.05), as well as in the extract-practice group, compared to controls (P<0.01), and sham (P<0.001). On the other hand, TNF-α level was decreased in the treated groups, in comparison to the sham and control groups; however, this decrease was not significant.
 
Conclusion: Based on the results, aerobic exercise training along with rosemary extract consumption can be effective in the production and balance of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the cerebellum tissue of aging rats.
Keywords: Aerobic exercises, Aging, Cerebellum, IL-6, Rosemary extract, TNF-α.
Full-Text [PDF 1085 kb]   (279 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Original Article | Subject: علوم پایه
Received: 2019/06/15 | Accepted: 2020/06/23 | Published: 2020/06/30
References
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7. Chapman NH, Fisk I, Craigon J, Towey C, Grant I, Brewer J. Exploring the effects of tomato extract supplementation on cognitive function during exercise and at rest. J Nutr Health Sci 2019;6(2):203. Link
8. Rasoolijazi H, Mehdizadeh M, Soleimani M, Nikbakhte F, Farsani ME, Ababzadeh S. The effect of rosemary extract on spatial memory, learning and antioxidant enzymes activities in the hippocampus of middle-aged rats. Med J Islam Repub Iran 2015;29:187. PMID: 26034740
9. Ababzadeh S, Iravani A, Fallahian F, Aghamiri SM. Histological and morphological studies of cardiac cells in response to aerobic exercise and rosemary extract in rat model of aging. J Morphol Sci 2018;35(04):266-71. Link [DOI:10.1055/s-0038-1676778]
10. Romano CS, Abadi K, Repetto V, Vojnov AA, Moreno S. Synergistic antioxidant and antibacterial activity of rosemary plus butylated derivatives. Food Chem 2009;115(2):456-61. Link [DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.12.029]
11. Moore J, Yousef M, Tsiani E. Anticancer effects of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extract and rosemary extract polyphenols. Nutrients 2016;8(11):E731. PMID: 27869665 [DOI:10.3390/nu8110731]
12. Vlavcheski F, Baron D, Vlachogiannis IA, MacPherson RE, Tsiani E. Carnosol increases skeletal muscle cell glucose uptake via AMPK-dependent GLUT4 glucose transporter translocation. Int J Mol Sci 2018;19(5):E1321. PMID: 29710819 [DOI:10.3390/ijms19051321]
13. Dimauro I, Paronetto MP, Caporossi D. Exercise, redox homeostasis and the epigenetic landscape. Redox Biol 2020;35:101477. PMID: 32127290 [DOI:10.1016/j.redox.2020.101477]
14. Camus G, Deby-Dupont G, Deby C, Juchmes-Ferir A, Pincemail J, Lamy M. Inflammatory response to strenuous muscular exercise in man. Mediators Inflamm 1993;2(5):335-42. PMID: 18475542 [DOI:10.1155/S0962935193000468]
15. Finaud J, Scislowski V, Lac G, Durand D, Vidalin H, Robert A, et al. Antioxidant status and oxidative stress in professional rugby players: evolution throughout a season. Int J Sports Med 2006;27(2):87-93. PMID: 16475052 [DOI:10.1055/s-2005-837489]
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20. Suvarna KS, Layton C, Bancroft JD. Bancroft's theory and practice of histological techniques E-Book. New York: Elsevier Health Sciences; 2018. Link
21. Garatachea N, Pareja-Galeano H, Sanchis-Gomar F, Santos-Lozano A, Fiuza-Luces C, Morán M, et al. Exercise attenuates the major hallmarks of aging. Rejuvenation Res 2015;18(1):57-89. PMID: 25431878 [DOI:10.1089/rej.2014.1623]
22. Muller FL, Lustgarten MS, Jang Y, Richardson A, Van Remmen H. Trends in oxidative aging theories. Free Radic Biol Med 2007;43(4):477-503. PMID: 17640558 [DOI:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2007.03.034]
23. Cheung S, Tai J. Anti-proliferative and antioxidant properties of rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis. Oncol Rep 2007;17(6):1525-31. PMID: 17487414 [DOI:10.3892/or.17.6.1525]
24. Munné-Bosch S, Alegre L. Subcellular compartmentation of the diterpene carnosic acid and its derivatives in the leaves of rosemary. Plant Physiol 2001;125(2):1094-102. PMID: 11161064 [DOI:10.1104/pp.125.2.1094]
25. Arranz E, Jaime L, García‐Risco MR, Fornari T, Reglero G, Santoyo S. Anti‐inflammatory activity of rosemary extracts obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide enriched in carnosic acid and carnosol. Int J Food Sci Technol 2015;50(3):674-81. Link [DOI:10.1111/ijfs.12656]
26. Namita P, Mukesh R, Vijay KJ. Camellia sinensis (green tea): a review. Global J Pharmacol 2012;6(2):52-9. Link
27. Poeckel D, Greiner C, Verhoff M, Rau O, Tausch L, Hörnig C, et al. Carnosic acid and carnosol potently inhibit human 5-lipoxygenase and suppress pro-inflammatory responses of stimulated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Biochem Pharmacol 2008;76(1):91-7. PMID: 18508031 [DOI:10.1016/j.bcp.2008.04.013]
28. Azad N, Rasoolijazi H, Joghataie MT, Soleimani S. Neuroprotective effects of carnosic acid in an experimental model of Alzheimer's disease in rats. Cell J 2011;13(1):39-44. PMID: 23671826
29. Nybo L, Nielsen B, Pedersen BK, Møller K, Secher NH. Interleukin‐6 release from the human brain during prolonged exercise. J Physiol 2002;542(Pt 3):991-5. PMID: 12154196 [DOI:10.1113/jphysiol.2002.022285]
30. Bauer S, Kerr BJ, Patterson PH. The neuropoietic cytokine family in development, plasticity, disease and injury. Nat Rev Neurosci 2007;8(3):221-32. PMID: 17311007 [DOI:10.1038/nrn2054]
31. Deverman BE, Patterson PH. Cytokines and CNS development. Neuron 2009;64(1):61-78. PMID: 19840550 [DOI:10.1016/j.neuron.2009.09.002]
32. Van Wagoner NJ, Benveniste EN. Interleukin-6 expression and regulation in astrocytes. J Neuroimmunol 1999;100(1-2):124-39. PMID: 10695723 [DOI:10.1016/S0165-5728(99)00187-3]
33. Moss AD. The impact of endurance exercise intensity on local and systemic hormonal and cytokine responses in the recreationally active young and old. Manchester: Manchester Metropolitan University; 2015. Link
34. Petersen AMW, Pedersen BK. The anti-inflammatory effect of exercise. J Appl Physiol 2005;98(4):1154-62. PMID: 15772055 [DOI:10.1152/japplphysiol.00164.2004]
35. Chennaoui M, Drogou C, Gomez-Merino D. Effects of physical training on IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-1ra concentrations in various brain areas of the rat. European cytokine network. 2008;19(1):8-14. link
36. Chennaoui M, Drogou C, Gomez-Merino D. Effects of physical training on IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-1ra concentrations in various brain areas of the rat. Eur Cytokine Netw 2008;19(1):8-14. PMID: 18299269
37. Gustafson B, Smith U. Cytokines promote Wnt signaling and inflammation and impair the normal differentiation and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. J Biol Chem 2006;281(14):9507-16. PMID: 16464856 [DOI:10.1074/jbc.M512077200]
38. Leite MR, Cechella JL, Mantovani AC, Duarte MM, Nogueira CW, Zeni G. Swimming exercise and diphenyl diselenide-supplemented diet affect the serum levels of pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines differently depending on the age of rats. Cytokine 2015;71(1):119-23. PMID: 25307207 [DOI:10.1016/j.cyto.2014.09.006]
39. Jahangiri RJ, Farzanegi P, Habibian MH. The effect of aerobic training and arbotin on cardiac nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and vascular endothelial growth factor in male diabetic rats. Qom Univ Med Sci J 2017;11(5):53-62. Link
40. Adamopoulos S, Parissis J, Kroupis C, Georgiadis M, Karatzas D, Karavolias G, et al. Physical training reduces peripheral markers of inflammation in patients with chronic heart failure. Eur Heart J 2001;22(9):791-7. PMID: 11350112
41. Heled Y, Dror Y, Moran DS, Rosenzweig T, Sampson SR, Epstein Y, et al. Physical exercise increases the expression of TNFα and GLUT 1 in muscle tissue of diabetes prone Psammomys obesus. Life Sci 2005; 77(23):2977-85. PMID: 16043194 [DOI:10.1016/j.lfs.2005.05.033]
42. Mirzaie M, Darabi S. Population aging in Iran and rising health care costs. Iran J Ageing 2017;12(2):156-69. Link [DOI:10.21859/sija-1202156]
43. Joseph JA. The putative role of free radicals in the loss of neuronal functioning in senescence. Integr Physiol Behav Sci 1992;27(3):216-27. PMID: 1419868 [DOI:10.1007/BF02690894]
44. da Silva SG, Simões PSR, Mortara RA, Scorza FA, Cavalheiro EA, da Graça Naffah-Mazzacoratti M, et al. Exercise-induced hippocampal anti-inflammatory response in aged rats. 2013;10(1):827. link [DOI:10.1186/1742-2094-10-61]
45. Franzke B, Schober-Halper B, Hofmann M, Oesen S, Tosevska A, Strasser EM, et al. Fat soluble vitamins in institutionalized elderly and the effect of exercise, nutrition and cognitive training on their status-the vienna active aging study (VAAS): a randomized controlled trial. Nutrients 2019;11(6):1333. Link [DOI:10.3390/nu11061333]
46. Simioni C, Zauli G, Martelli AM, Vitale M, Sacchetti G, Gonelli A, et al. Oxidative stress: role of physical exercise and antioxidant nutraceuticals in adulthood and aging. Oncotarget 2018;9(24):17181-98. PMID: 29682215 [DOI:10.18632/oncotarget.24729]
47. Hou CW, Chen IC, Shu FR, Feng CH, Hung CT. Protective effect of supplementation with Lycium ruthenicum Murray extract from exhaustive exercise-induced cardiac injury in rats. Chin Med J 2019;132(8):1005-6. PMID: 30958451 [DOI:10.1097/CM9.0000000000000185]
48. Chapman NH, Fisk I, Craigon J, Towey C, Grant I, Brewer J. Exploring the effects of tomato extract supplementation on cognitive function during exercise and at rest. J Nutr Health Sci 2019;6(2):203. Link
49. Rasoolijazi H, Mehdizadeh M, Soleimani M, Nikbakhte F, Farsani ME, Ababzadeh S. The effect of rosemary extract on spatial memory, learning and antioxidant enzymes activities in the hippocampus of middle-aged rats. Med J Islam Repub Iran 2015;29:187. PMID: 26034740
50. Ababzadeh S, Iravani A, Fallahian F, Aghamiri SM. Histological and morphological studies of cardiac cells in response to aerobic exercise and rosemary extract in rat model of aging. J Morphol Sci 2018;35(04):266-71. Link [DOI:10.1055/s-0038-1676778]
51. Romano CS, Abadi K, Repetto V, Vojnov AA, Moreno S. Synergistic antioxidant and antibacterial activity of rosemary plus butylated derivatives. Food Chem 2009;115(2):456-61. Link [DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.12.029]
52. Moore J, Yousef M, Tsiani E. Anticancer effects of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extract and rosemary extract polyphenols. Nutrients 2016;8(11):E731. PMID: 27869665 [DOI:10.3390/nu8110731]
53. Vlavcheski F, Baron D, Vlachogiannis IA, MacPherson RE, Tsiani E. Carnosol increases skeletal muscle cell glucose uptake via AMPK-dependent GLUT4 glucose transporter translocation. Int J Mol Sci 2018;19(5):E1321. PMID: 29710819 [DOI:10.3390/ijms19051321]
54. Dimauro I, Paronetto MP, Caporossi D. Exercise, redox homeostasis and the epigenetic landscape. Redox Biol 2020;35:101477. PMID: 32127290 [DOI:10.1016/j.redox.2020.101477]
55. Camus G, Deby-Dupont G, Deby C, Juchmes-Ferir A, Pincemail J, Lamy M. Inflammatory response to strenuous muscular exercise in man. Mediators Inflamm 1993;2(5):335-42. PMID: 18475542 [DOI:10.1155/S0962935193000468]
56. Finaud J, Scislowski V, Lac G, Durand D, Vidalin H, Robert A, et al. Antioxidant status and oxidative stress in professional rugby players: evolution throughout a season. Int J Sports Med 2006;27(2):87-93. PMID: 16475052 [DOI:10.1055/s-2005-837489]
57. Sen C, Packer L, Hänninen O. Handbook of oxidants and antioxidants in exercise. New York: Elsevier; 2000. Link
58. Fatouros IG, Kouretas D. Exercise, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Exer Physiol 2010;75:245. Link
59. Radak Z, Chung HY, Goto S. Systemic adaptation to oxidative challenge induced by regular exercise. Free Radic Biol Med 2008;44(2):153-9. PMID: 18191751 [DOI:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2007.01.029]
60. Cotman CW, Berchtold NC. Physical activity and the maintenance of cognition: learning from animal models. Alzheimers Dement 2007;3(2 Suppl):S30-7. PMID: 19595972 [DOI:10.1016/j.jalz.2007.01.013]
61. Suvarna KS, Layton C, Bancroft JD. Bancroft's theory and practice of histological techniques E-Book. New York: Elsevier Health Sciences; 2018. Link
62. Garatachea N, Pareja-Galeano H, Sanchis-Gomar F, Santos-Lozano A, Fiuza-Luces C, Morán M, et al. Exercise attenuates the major hallmarks of aging. Rejuvenation Res 2015;18(1):57-89. PMID: 25431878 [DOI:10.1089/rej.2014.1623]
63. Muller FL, Lustgarten MS, Jang Y, Richardson A, Van Remmen H. Trends in oxidative aging theories. Free Radic Biol Med 2007;43(4):477-503. PMID: 17640558 [DOI:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2007.03.034]
64. Cheung S, Tai J. Anti-proliferative and antioxidant properties of rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis. Oncol Rep 2007;17(6):1525-31. PMID: 17487414 [DOI:10.3892/or.17.6.1525]
65. Munné-Bosch S, Alegre L. Subcellular compartmentation of the diterpene carnosic acid and its derivatives in the leaves of rosemary. Plant Physiol 2001;125(2):1094-102. PMID: 11161064 [DOI:10.1104/pp.125.2.1094]
66. Arranz E, Jaime L, García‐Risco MR, Fornari T, Reglero G, Santoyo S. Anti‐inflammatory activity of rosemary extracts obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide enriched in carnosic acid and carnosol. Int J Food Sci Technol 2015;50(3):674-81. Link [DOI:10.1111/ijfs.12656]
67. Namita P, Mukesh R, Vijay KJ. Camellia sinensis (green tea): a review. Global J Pharmacol 2012;6(2):52-9. Link
68. Poeckel D, Greiner C, Verhoff M, Rau O, Tausch L, Hörnig C, et al. Carnosic acid and carnosol potently inhibit human 5-lipoxygenase and suppress pro-inflammatory responses of stimulated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Biochem Pharmacol 2008;76(1):91-7. PMID: 18508031 [DOI:10.1016/j.bcp.2008.04.013]
69. Azad N, Rasoolijazi H, Joghataie MT, Soleimani S. Neuroprotective effects of carnosic acid in an experimental model of Alzheimer's disease in rats. Cell J 2011;13(1):39-44. PMID: 23671826
70. Nybo L, Nielsen B, Pedersen BK, Møller K, Secher NH. Interleukin‐6 release from the human brain during prolonged exercise. J Physiol 2002;542(Pt 3):991-5. PMID: 12154196 [DOI:10.1113/jphysiol.2002.022285]
71. Bauer S, Kerr BJ, Patterson PH. The neuropoietic cytokine family in development, plasticity, disease and injury. Nat Rev Neurosci 2007;8(3):221-32. PMID: 17311007 [DOI:10.1038/nrn2054]
72. Deverman BE, Patterson PH. Cytokines and CNS development. Neuron 2009;64(1):61-78. PMID: 19840550 [DOI:10.1016/j.neuron.2009.09.002]
73. Van Wagoner NJ, Benveniste EN. Interleukin-6 expression and regulation in astrocytes. J Neuroimmunol 1999;100(1-2):124-39. PMID: 10695723 [DOI:10.1016/S0165-5728(99)00187-3]
74. Moss AD. The impact of endurance exercise intensity on local and systemic hormonal and cytokine responses in the recreationally active young and old. Manchester: Manchester Metropolitan University; 2015. Link
75. Petersen AMW, Pedersen BK. The anti-inflammatory effect of exercise. J Appl Physiol 2005;98(4):1154-62. PMID: 15772055 [DOI:10.1152/japplphysiol.00164.2004]
76. Chennaoui M, Drogou C, Gomez-Merino D. Effects of physical training on IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-1ra concentrations in various brain areas of the rat. European cytokine network. 2008;19(1):8-14. link
77. Chennaoui M, Drogou C, Gomez-Merino D. Effects of physical training on IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-1ra concentrations in various brain areas of the rat. Eur Cytokine Netw 2008;19(1):8-14. PMID: 18299269
78. Gustafson B, Smith U. Cytokines promote Wnt signaling and inflammation and impair the normal differentiation and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. J Biol Chem 2006;281(14):9507-16. PMID: 16464856 [DOI:10.1074/jbc.M512077200]
79. Leite MR, Cechella JL, Mantovani AC, Duarte MM, Nogueira CW, Zeni G. Swimming exercise and diphenyl diselenide-supplemented diet affect the serum levels of pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines differently depending on the age of rats. Cytokine 2015;71(1):119-23. PMID: 25307207 [DOI:10.1016/j.cyto.2014.09.006]
80. Jahangiri RJ, Farzanegi P, Habibian MH. The effect of aerobic training and arbotin on cardiac nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and vascular endothelial growth factor in male diabetic rats. Qom Univ Med Sci J 2017;11(5):53-62. Link
81. Adamopoulos S, Parissis J, Kroupis C, Georgiadis M, Karatzas D, Karavolias G, et al. Physical training reduces peripheral markers of inflammation in patients with chronic heart failure. Eur Heart J 2001;22(9):791-7. PMID: 11350112
82. Heled Y, Dror Y, Moran DS, Rosenzweig T, Sampson SR, Epstein Y, et al. Physical exercise increases the expression of TNFα and GLUT 1 in muscle tissue of diabetes prone Psammomys obesus. Life Sci 2005; 77(23):2977-85. PMID: 16043194 [DOI:10.1016/j.lfs.2005.05.033]
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Soori R, Vahdat H, Shabkhiz F, Ababzadeh S, Eslami Farsani M. Effects of Aerobic Exercise and Rosemary Extracts on Inflammatory Factors in Cerebellar of Male Old Rats. Qom Univ Med Sci J. 2020; 14 (4) :11-21
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Volume 14, Issue 4 (June 2020) Back to browse issues page
مجله دانشگاه علوم پزشکی قم Qom University of Medical Sciences Journal
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